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Behind the factual institutions such as the antiterrorist law and its application to the Mapuche demands are, factual powers of the state that are powerful economic groups. If one had to compare criminal, genocidal, conspiratorial acts of the public and private sectors with the Mapuche acts that claim rights branded as terrorism, what then would one call the contamination of the environment and the degradation of territories? To the occupation of ancestral lands of a People? The expansion of the forestry and pulp industry over agricultural, cattle, and native forest lands? To the militarization of territories to protect these interests? To the territorial dispossession of Communities?
The former government spokesperson for the Bachelet regime and Senator Ricardo Lagos Weber, son of former President Lagos, acknowledged that it was an error by the Concertación to invoke the law that sanctions terrorist conduct against Mapuches. However, this "mea culpa" omits the series of antecedents in relation to the reason for its application, the maintenance of factual laws, the interests behind it and the true dimension of the state violence carried out against a People that demands restitution. and acknowledgments of Rights.
In this context of the “Mea culpas” that Tohá and Lagos Weber make about the error in the application of the Anti-Terrorism Law against Mapuches (1), it would also be worth asking them: Was it a mistake to prioritize criminalization over participation and dialogue? true for conflict resolution? Was it a mistake to have imprisoned by the anti-terrorist law Mapuche authorities for "threats" and social fighters with insane, aberrant and abusive penalties "compensation? Was the murder of young Mapuches like Lemún, Catrileo and Mendoza Collío a mistake? Was it a mistake to have submitted to the interests of violent and fascist economic groups? Was it a mistake to have given priority to the expansion of activities with enormous social, environmental, cultural, economic impacts such as the forestry and pulp industry? How can that be defined?
Author Walter Laqueur defines terrorism as "The systematic murder, criminal mutilation, and threat of the innocent to create fear and intimidation to win a political or tactical act and to be advantageous, usually to influence a public." Beyond the concepts there is a common sense. Does this fit the claims for the Rights of a People in the face of state massacres, the usurpation of land, the denial of rights?
Chilean State and Mapuche Rights (2)
The lack of land as a subsistence space, the progressive emigration to urban areas, pollution and the imposition of industrial policies such as forestry-cellulose, energy such as hydroelectric dams, salmon, mining, are attacks on forms of social and cultural life , environmental-spatial, economic and philosophical of the Mapuche People, therefore, the acts of mobilization are absolutely legitimate of claims on ancestral lands that have been usurped by the state or that try to impact. In effect, the Chilean state has the obligation to recognize, demarcate, restore, and protect ancestral lands. This has been recommended by the Committee of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and has been reiterated by the Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. However, the State insists on repeating a wrong and unlawful policy, endorsed in the current Piñera government.
In this framework, the State of Chile has not only not been implementing them, nor has it taken measures to guarantee the principle of protection of the Human Rights of the original Peoples, but also, at present, there is no efficient protection against the commercial and economic interests of economic corporations in ancestral territories despite the ratification of ILO Convention 169 since September 2008 and since September 2007 Chile approved the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Moreover, various cases have been described only recently, they show how the State does not respect or protect territoriality, the basic support for development and social well-being and where collective Human Rights are exercised.
To this day, investment projects are carried out, with the authorization and support of the State, without the informed consent of the affected communities. The denounced events have been revealed as constant practices to nullify or undermine the recognition, enjoyment and exercise, under conditions of equality, of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous peoples where there have been continuous acts of bad faith.
It is important to highlight that the criminal response that the State of Chile has given to the protest and mobilization that Mapuche communities have carried out to demand full respect for their rights has been with criminalization and repressive operational plans. Militarization, prosecution, persecution and various assemblies, mainly communicational, has been a reality that is experienced more intensely since November 2002 to date and that has been increasing in recent years.
What is behind the Anti-Terrorism Law ?: Powers of Attorney
Behind the factual institutions such as the antiterrorist law and its application to the Mapuche demands are, factual powers of the state that are powerful economic groups. If one had to compare criminal, genocidal, conspiratorial acts of the public and private sectors with the Mapuche acts that claim rights branded as terrorism? What then should we call the pollution of the environment and the degradation of territories? To the occupation of ancestral lands of a People? The expansion of the forestry and pulp industry over agricultural, cattle, and native forest lands? To the militarization of territories to protect these interests? To the territorial dispossession of Communities? One of the main economic groups that are repeated in the application of anti-terrorist laws against Mapuches in the framework of conflicts over land is CMPC (Forestry and cellulose) of the Matte Group, accused of causing serious impacts with the expansion of the forest monoculture industry; to keep under their dominion usurped lands that are claimed by communities of the original Mapuche people; From being accomplices in self-attacks of forest fires caused by mercenary security groups to generate the criminalization of the Mapuche social protest and neutralize their claims; Of serious contamination to diverse territories, habitats and Natural Resources as a consequence of toxic cellulose plants; From being an obstacle to the advancement of sectoral laws that make it possible to recognize and guarantee collective rights; To be directly responsible for the persecution and imprisonment of numerous Mapuche people; Two young Mapuche men have died in the context of land conflicts, one of them killed by the police; Wanting to impose hydroelectric projects in various parts of the country that would bring serious impacts to populations, territories and ecosystems.
To whom did the state apparatus submit? As an example: The Matte Group (Bernardo, Eliodor and Patricia) (3).
One of its members is Eliorodo Matte Larraín, who heads this family group of economic power, created at the beginning of the 19th century by Luis Matte Larraín in alliance with the Alessandri family from the Papelera, current holding Company Manufacturera de Papeles y Cartones (CMPC ). Since then, their influences have spread to almost all spheres of life in the country, with more than thirty companies in the financial, bank, mining, health, timber, telecommunications, energy - hydroelectric, ports and industry sectors, also including culture and education, being one of the most millionaire groups in Latin America according to the Forbes list
Eliodoro Matte not only chairs the CMPC, but is also one of the heads of the Center for Public Studies (CEP) and the board of directors of the Finis Terrae University. In addition, he has participated with his sister Patricia in the Instituto Libertad y Desarrollo, a right-wing think tank.
The Center for Public Studies (CEP), a foundation that brings together the business world, mainly forestry. Founded and directed by Eliodoro Matte, CEP intervenes in public opinion projections, studies and research, and also serves as a meeting place between government authorities and the business world. Precisely the leaders must go to this institution to "dialogue" about their points of view.
This Matte group has also had direct influence in the media, forming part of open channel directories. At the time Bernardo was linked to the board of TVN (National Television of Chile) and Patricia to channel 13 (Catholic University). By the way: On what channel did a program called "contact" appear, making the relationship about Mapuche ties with the Farc?
The Mattes, through Bernardo, also have their meeting point with the main controlling owner of the written media, with Agustín Edwards (4), owner of EMOL (el mercurio, the fourth, the latest news, the second, chain of newspapers regional governments, etc.), who, in addition to being involved in "historical" transactions, maintain "social performance" in the Citizen Peace Foundation as president, an instance that, as they point out, gives "guidelines" on "security" and "crime" policies. ”To the public powers of the Chilean State. Edwards is syndicated as one of the managers of the coup in Chile. By the way, in what written media does the so-called Mapuche terrorism originate? (5)
In relation to the Instituto Libertad y Desarrollo (LYD), Patricia Matte is part of the board of directors of this institution that has been the ideological base of the Right in Chile since 1990, dedicated to study and research and provides content for both the UDI and the National Renovation and the results of its publications generate a great impact on public opinion since they are widely publicized by the media.
Another institution with "social purposes", dedicated to poverty through projects and scholarships, is the Andes Foundation, integrated into its board of directors by a series of characters where the Mattes have ancestry. Follow the list among others, with the Kazt Foundation or legionaries of Christ from their “religious faith”.
Finally, their direct participation in trade union groups, maintains latent the power relationship between the forest owners and other economic groups that become powerful voices in the face of the Chilean political powers, submitting them to their credit.
Some time ago, the Mattes ended their alliance with one of the most traditional and conservative groups in the UK, the Rothschilds, acquiring the entire stake of the British in Bank BICE. Later, they did the same with their North American partners in the Mellon Bank group, buying their stake in The Dreyfrus Corporation. But not everything has been acquisitions, some time ago they sold the 7.6% they owned in the Compañía Sudamericana de Vapores, which Ricardo Claro controls, and none other than the businessman and former presidential candidate of National Renovation, Sebastián Piñera, presidential candidate of the right and the new Chilean to appear on the Forbes Magazine list since 2007.
Another of the many activities of the Matte Group is the Hydroelectric Projects through the company COLBÚN, which has begun an expansion of projects that would bring serious impacts in different parts of the country. One of them is the one they intend to install in the San Pedro river between the Los Lagos and Panguipulli communes, together with the HidroAysén megaproject, which intends to build four dams on the Baker and Pascua rivers in Region XI in alliance with the transnational ENDESA - Spain , the same as the genocide of the Mapuche Pewenche communities in the Altos del Bio Biio (Ralco).
What happened then with the so-called last democratic governments?
(6) The Government of Ricardo Lagos
Since the government of Ricardo Lagos there was no intention of taking a step forward in a true relationship or deal with the original peoples, especially the Mapuche. On the contrary, an action is established focused on welfare policies, as well as conducts that tend to criminalize, persecute and prosecute dissident groups and always operate in favor of economic groups.
Lagos not only gave continuity to a disastrous economic model imposed by the regime of former President Frei, but rather, he perfected it, consolidated it and submitted to the economic groups as demonstrated. In effect, Chile was inserted even more strongly in the globalization of the free market, in the standardization or homogenization of production and the homologation of world prices with unequal economies and with asymmetric development and technologies, causing various social sectors in Chile, including Peoples natives such as the Mapuche, are victims of abuses and fatalities due to this model, such as: Food sovereignty, the increase in privatizations for the benefit of transnational capital, productive homogenization and monofunctionality of the land with dire consequences in the face of environmental deterioration and Consolidation of an over-exploiting market with plans that seek to benefit corporations and transnationals, conceived from a repressive police perspective and strategy, aimed at controlling and dismantling social movements, with assimilation policies against the rights and culture of indigenous peoples and nations, in corpor domain post active, transnational looting and as an effect, environmental and social disaster.
An example. Never have forestry companies and their economic groups had so much expansion and profits as in this government. Lagos left them the way so that by 2025 there would be some 5,000,000 hectares planted with exotic species of pine or eucalyptus and there would be an export level of US $ 10 billion annually. Today they far exceed US $ 3,500 million annually. The model of the forest industry and its companies, which have caused so much conflict in Mapuche communities, has specific spatial impacts, such as: it superimposes a virtual forest zone on other spaces, with the plantation system, and industrial cities-pulp plants , road networks (highways and railways) and self-sufficient flows articulated towards the national center and external market. A forest region that responds to its own policies and regulations. Watershed water regimes are depleted and altered, transforming ecosystems. Socially, it causes the displacement of populations, the cornering of communities, and exposure to chemical pollutants. Today, in the sights of the government and forestry companies, to continue the expansion, are the lands of the Mapuche communities themselves.
During the Lagos regime, in November 2002, the young Mapuche Alex Lemún, aged 17, was assassinated by a Carabineros officer inside a forest estate (Mininco) claimed by the Lemún Community and the perpetrator has been promoted twice. of charge and transfer of units. Likewise, the Mapuche authorities Aniceto Norin and Pascual Pichún were convicted of “threats” of a terrorist fire. Also, like the Lonko, the Werkén Víctor Ancalaf Llaupe was sentenced to 5 years in prison within the framework of the Endesa conflict, the Ralco dam and the accusation against 11 Mapuches was carried out under the anti-terrorist law for sentences of up to 10 years in prison in the Poluco Pidenco case that involved the interests of Forestal Mininco (CMPC), at the time when the Operation Plan “Paciencia” was conceived, aimed at persecuting, criminalizing and executing conspiratorial plans to stop the demands for ancestral lands.
(7) The Government of Michelle Bachelet
Mrs. Bachelet ended her short term on March 11 of this year, and left a heavy legacy in indigenous politics: The Bachelet Government left with bloodstained hands, with more than a hundred political prisoners, with systematic human rights violations. to repress legitimate claims for ancestral lands, without guaranteeing the Right to Life in the midst of its absolute inability to provide a political and peaceful solution to resolve legitimate claims for Collective Rights and having maintained, promoted and legitimized the competence of factual institutions such as the Military courts and the application of the anti-terrorist law to Mapuche causes.
In short, a sum of racism, arbitrariness, abuse and abuses in an inefficient government to resolve conflicts, which have led to one of the most serious contemporary fractures between the Mapuche people and the Chilean state.
Mapuche history is marked by the death of two young people in the context of conflicts over legitimate claims to ancestral lands: Matias Catrileo and Jaime Mendoza Collio, murdered during the government of Michelle Bachelet Jeria.
The only progress that has been recorded in the Bachelet period in relation to indigenous peoples is the ratification of ILO Convention 169, a binding international instrument on indigenous rights. This norm was cynically postponed during 4 concertationist governments and the ratification was an achievement of the Mapuche mobilization and the date of its approval has a name: Matias Catrileo. Only after his death, cowardly assassinated in the back by agents of the Chilean state, did the Government assign urgency to ratification. After ratification, the Bachelet government did everything possible to sabotage it and narrow its scope with interpretative declarations.
Likewise, he denied that there are Mapuche Political Prisoners in Chile and his Government, through officials, lied at the United Nations, pointing out that in Chile there are no ancestral lands to repair.
(8) The Government of Sebastián Piñera
It is worth mentioning that a large part of the conflicts that exist in the present either due to the restitution of ancestral lands or resistance to the imposition of private investment projects such as forestry, cellulose, hydroelectric, salmon, mining, among others, will affect numerous lives, they confront, without further concertation masks, directly and frontally with those who have assumed the representation of the new Piñera government.
The Cabinet that President Piñera has are, representatives of the main business sectors and unions of large landowners of colonial origin, where numerous communities maintain claims, therefore, also, it is in their hands, the option to sharpen tensions and intensify the path of violations; Or, to give a full solution to current conflicts, with respect for Human Rights and to fully comply with international norms and standards on Indigenous Rights and the Environment.
However, contrary to seeking efficient solutions, the Government is not meeting its implementation obligations with respect to international Human Rights standards such as ILO Convention 169 and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, executing acts illegal, putting themselves outside the law and generating a climate of legal and political uncertainty within the country. One of the latest facts is that the Government should have made known in a timely manner and consulted on the Report on the implementation of Convention 169 that on September 1 it entered, in a “clandestine” manner, contravening a series of legal provisions and acting behind the backs of the Indigenous villages. In the same way, it is currently promoting a Constitutional Reform Project on Indigenous Peoples, in an unconsulted and canceling of Rights, and refuses to engage in real dialogue with the families of the Mapuche Political Prisoners to seek a political solution to the conflict of the Hunger Strike and its demands. that have 34 Mapuches imprisoned in different prisons in Chile.
It is worth mentioning that, there is a series of breaches and pending matters by the Chilean state on recommendations that various committees and Rapporteurs of the United Nations have made known to Chile in recent years for violations of indigenous human rights.
The Chilean state maintains an unpresentable situation with respect to the fulfillment and implementation that UN organizations have been doing. Committee recommendations: Del Niño; of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR), OF Torture, of Human Rights (Civil and Political Rights Pact); of the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CEDR), the recommendations of UN rapporteurs, such as Stavenhagen and Anaya on the indigenous situation, are some of the antecedents that alert the international human rights community about the true democratic symptoms that are experienced in Chile.
General Mapuexpress Edition
(1) Lagos Weber: It was an error of the previous Government to invoke the Antiterrorist Law / http: //www.cooperativa.cl ... / Carolina Tohá: http: //www.ansa.it ...
(2) Chilean State, International Human Rights Law, and Mapuche intervention, participation and autonomy processes / See More: http: //www.mapuexpress.net…
(3) About Grupo CMPC - Matte / See More: http: //argentina.indymedia.org… http: //www.mapuexpress.net…
(4) What is behind the Agustín Edwards Foundation: The dangerous Paz Ciudadana / See More: http: //www.mapuexpress.net ... / EL DIARIO DE AGUSTIN: Film reveals one of the main powers that be in Chile / See More: http: //www.mapuexpress.net…
(5) Mapuche people in El Mercurio: Racism, discrimination and news machination / Read More: http: //www.mapuexpress.net…
(6) Chronicles of disagreements: Government of Ricardo Lagos versus Mapuche social movement / See More: http: //www.mapuexpress.net…
(7) The Mapuche Human Rights During the Government of Bachelet / See More: http: //www.mapuexpress.net…
(8) The Human Rights of the Indigenous Peoples in Chile against the New Government / Read More: http: //www.mapuexpress.net ... / Chile: The Presidential Double Speech on Indigenous Matters / Read More: http: // www. mapuexpress.net… / GESTURE? BENEVOLENCE? THE OBLIGATIONS THAT THE CHILEAN GOVERNMENT MUST ASSUME IN INDIGENOUS MATTERS / Read More: http: //www.mapuexpress.net…