The procedure chosen to dispose of the garbage has been the disposal of the same in low, flooded areas, through the creation of sanitary landfills
"More than 80 percent of the commercially exploitable fish stocks in the Southwest Atlantic and 40 percent in the Southeast Pacific are over-exploited or depleted."
The actions of man were always insignificant, compared to the magnitude of the marine ecosystem; everything was compensated by nature. The sea and the atmosphere behaved infinitely, swallowing the undesirable by-products of human activity. But, we became too powerful. We are many and we handle energies capable of altering natural balances.
The rational use and management of ecosystems has been at the forefront for years. But for what and how a coral reef is managed remains to be seen. Namely, dual capitalism, global / parish models, ecological assessment and monitoring, elimination of social traps, change of human behavior from dominion to steward, demographic transition, ecological restoration, environmental ethics and aesthetics, in addition to the turn in production systems, in what is called input management.
Of course, the famous three "Rs" of the environmental code (recycle, reuse, reduce) are now joined by the two "Rs" of the engineering code (restore, replace) for a pragmatic vision of what contemporary ecology should be.
The trend imposed by globalization is not towards convergence but towards increasing inequalities. Globalization contributes to environmental degradation, accentuates poverty, social exclusion and social inequalities within each country and between industrialized and developing countries. The integrating foundation of ecology, the fact that it is the science of the environment or the disciplinary interfaces that have to do with the functioning of marine systems.
How, how much and why the management of ecosystems are questions fundamentally associated with the level of social scientists, here is that what was previously known as "applied ecology" is now purely ecological matter.
The option is present "Ecology" should be the bridge between science and society.
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reported that in 1989 the total fishing fleet in Latin America amounted to more than 9,000 vessels (FAO, 1997). According to the most recent analysis, the fleet has been increasing at an annual rate of 5 percent for the last decade. The fishing sector faces growing problems, including the depletion of fish stocks, overcapitalization and plant closures, habitat degradation, non-compliance with management regulations and illegal practices, as well as increasingly competitive competition. highest among industrial and artisanal fleets.
More than 80 percent of commercially exploitable fish stocks in the Southwest Atlantic and 40 percent in the Southeast Pacific are fully exploited, over-exploited, or depleted (FAO, 1995).
The waters off the coasts of Peru and Chile are one of the five largest commercial fisheries in the world and, until recently, off the coasts of Argentina and Uruguay were the most rapidly expanding fisheries sector in the world. The effects of bycatch on Marine Biodiversity and fisheries sustainability are also a concern.
Given the dependence of the Latin American fishing sector on markets in industrialized countries, where demand is strong, it is expected that the pressure on fish stocks will continue to increase.
The ability to apply marine science to manage coastal and marine resources, policies, regulations, and institutions for Coastal and Marine Zone Management lag behind other aspects of natural resource management. In many cases, this lag reflects a lack of awareness regarding the coastal and marine heritage of the region and its contribution to the national economic well-being.
The current fishing policy has been criticized in several demonstration projects that claim that it does not adequately favor Sustainable fishing, especially:
# The quota system has failed to prevent the decline in fish populations because it intervenes after the fact and often too late, when the process of disappearance is already taking place.
# Threats from industrial fishing to marine biodiversity.
# To enhance the objectives of the Integrated Management of Coastal Zones, the structural policy of fisheries must be better articulated with: the other structural policies (with a perspective of economic and social cohesion). In this regard, it is necessary to highlight the difficulties of articulation between the national and regional logic because the structural policy of fisheries responds to a national logic of sectoral programming (in particular, the measures for the structural adjustment of fishing capacities).
# Environmental policy (with a sustainable development perspective); Integrated management of marine ecosystems requires a broader vision of the environment than simply incorporating
ecological objectives in fisheries management.
# Aquatic fauna must be protected, to prevent abuse and predation from turning fishing into an activity at odds with nature.
# The primary purposes are the protection of the marine ecosystem in South America, economic aid to people affected by the decline of the resource and a restructuring of the fleet, should be the goals of sustainable development in the region.