By Eduardo Aguirre Madariaga
Considering that the water problem acts as a unique phenomenon that indiscriminately affects all the municipalities of the A.M.G.R., the need to address solutions with an integrative vision and not partially dependent on the individual response capacity of each locality is a reality.
1 - Restrictions on land use
The Greater Resistencia Metropolitan Area is located in the flood valley of the Ríos Negro and Paraná, which has caused innumerable material and social damages to the inhabitants of Pto. Vilelas, Barranqueras and Resistencia, damage to their equipment and infrastructure and important economic losses to the productive system. Although to correct this erroneous location, this urban conglomerate today is surrounded by a system of defenses that protects it, future urban expansion should naturally develop towards higher ground.
In a coherent attempt to limit the indiscriminate advance of urbanization, the Provincial Water Administration has issued Res. 1111/98, which establishes a series of zoning with different degrees of restriction to land use due to the danger of flooding, trying to orient human settlements towards altimetrically protected places. For this purpose, the aforementioned Resolution determines a Prohibited Zone, a Severe Restriction Zone, a Slight Restriction Zone and a Warning Zone and the types of occupation authorized and prohibited in them.
2 - Need for an A.M.G.R. integrated
Considering that the water problem acts as a unique phenomenon that indiscriminately affects all the municipalities of the A.M.G.R., the need to address solutions with an integrative vision and not partially dependent on the individual response capacity of each locality is a reality. Therefore, while the current political division of these municipalities is maintained, each one will program and develop plans according to their own needs and factual realities, obviously with broad executive priority of the Municipality of Resistencia, due to its greater urban and population complexity as the capital of the province. . In order to address the problem with a unifying criterion, it would be convenient to consider the possibility of modifying the current municipal structure by creating a politically centralizing METROPOLITAN AREA, with districts or delegations. This comprehensive macro-vision would allow to direct investments in infrastructure and services towards towns such as Fontana and Puerto Tirol, favoring future settlements in areas naturally without water risk, that is, their operation does not include the permanent cost of defenses and pumping stations, investments that ultimately They end up unfairly paying all the inhabitants of the province. In the satellite image of the 1998 flood, it is possible to observe the high degree of vulnerability that the municipal ejidos of Puerto Vilelas, Barranqueras and Resistencia have, in comparison with those of Fontana and Puerto Tirol.
3 - Innovative urbanization project
In the current situation, a proposal for the urbanization of a sector of the city (in the image marked with a red circle) that is within the flood valley of the Río Negro, that is outside the defended enclosure, appears as novel and interesting, which, as a significant fact, in the aforementioned flood of year 98 it was covered by approximately 1.20mts. of water. Specifically, for this type of zoning, the aforementioned Resolution provides that the permitted uses are textually: "Constructions at the risk of the owner to natural terrain or on piles at the level of the previous slight restriction."
It can be seen that the Miranda Gallino neighborhood (in the image with a green circle), an old sector of the city that was consolidated before the aforementioned Resolution, has the same levels as the new projected neighborhood. All the riverside parcels of the Miranda Gallino with houses built on natural land, have their funds to the river and appropriate the landscape: the difference is that in 98, this area was flooded and the State had to make provisional defenses, trying to prevent the entry of the water and evacuate people in more exposed sectors, all at a very high cost for the affected individuals and for the city.
Barrio Miranda Gallino-Inundación 1998- In summary, the neighborhood project to be built does not include landfills in this "Severe Restriction" area (so as not to reduce the storage capacity of the river), if it foresees the compensation of volumes of the line of riverside, that is to say to fill in the low parts that are within the bank line for the execution of a coastal road in its 2400mts. in return, speed bumps must be created and an existing lagoon on the property must be enlarged so as not to modify the driving capacity or the storage capacity of the river. Inside the property there will be a subdivision for individual dwellings entirely of the "palafitic" type. This construction typology, with innovative characteristics for the region, although widely used in the world (even in our Delta), is characterized by having a free ground floor, that is, without any type of enclosure that prevents the free runoff of water in times of growing, complemented by the prohibition of perimeter fences in each lot. All these conditions must be included in the property titles.
An issue of particular relevance due to its potential polluting effects is the requirement that the complex have a connection to the urban sewage network, rejecting any alternative "in situ" effluent treatment system that could collapse due to the action of floods and end up dumping them into the River. Given the special characteristics of the site, also the network, pumping stations and household connections will guarantee the perfect tightness of the system, without prejudice to the provision of lock keys that isolate the sector and avoid any eventual harmful filtration to the water course.
Site where the Palafítico District will be built - Flood 1998-
4 - Conclusions
Although from a logical point of view it is advisable not to continue exposing people by allowing them to live in risky places, current legislation allows it within certain established limits. Furthermore, as long as the political structure of the AMGR municipalities is not modified, it is impossible to contain or regulate the expansionary pressure of the cities. For the first time, as an auspicious fact to highlight, harmonious urbanizations with the landscape are proposed, adapting to the natural conditions of the environment, prioritizing it, respecting it and revaluing the natural environment. In essence, the most important thing to highlight as a positive event in this experience is the change in the mentality of the developers, who almost late are learning to live with the natural environment, since if they had done it before, the situation would be very different. history of this city and perhaps not even the defenses would have been needed.
Eduardo Aguirre Madariaga Surveyor