We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
By Arq. Eduardo Yarke *
Bioenvironmental Architecture is a flexible methodology that incorporates the Environment variable in the entire process of design, construction and use of a building and that, although it places emphasis on seeking a reduction in energy consumption, it does not forget the other problems to be solved from the "environmental sustainability" approach.
For more than thirty years, and as a direct consequence of the Energy Crisis of 1973/74, proposals have arisen parallel to the architectural trends in vogue, which proposed a better relationship between buildings and the environment and the environment of their place of implantation.
This search gave rise to Solar Architecture in the 70s, which proposed to cover the heating needs of buildings with passive or active systems that used solar radiation as an energy resource.
Then this concept limited to heating and born from the needs of the most industrialized countries generally located in cold climates, was expanded towards the so-called Bioclimatic Architecture - developed in the following decade - which proposed using particularized techniques that were applied both in the periods or hot climates as in cold periods or climates, that is to say, constructing buildings that respond to the local climatic characteristics whatever and at all times of the year.
The concept of sustainable development, introduced in the 90s, a greater expansion of the previous proposals and it is then when it is sought, within this common denomination of Bioenvironmental Architecture, to design and build buildings "respectful" or "friendly" with the Environment within a methodology that takes into account its Life Cycle.
Bioenvironmental Architecture is therefore a flexible methodology that incorporates the Environment variable in the entire process of design and construction and use of a building and that, although it places emphasis on seeking a reduction in energy consumption, it does not forget the other problems to be solved from the "environmental sustainability" approach.
Therefore, it is neither within nor outside the current currents of architectural thought, although it seems "a priori" to have a greater affinity with some of them.
In fact, it is an approach that tends to modify some of the categories of the Scale of Values of the Industrial Society, since to materialize an Architecture based fundamentally on local demands and resources, is contrary to the concept of "internationality" and to take advantage of energy like the sun or the wind, they necessarily lead to urban "deconcentration." - where it is not essential, due to the change in scale, the "synchronization" of all movements, nor does it make practical sense to appeal to the "gigantism" of the proposals.
From this point of view, Bioenvironmental Architecture proposes a breaking point with values established since the 18th century and hence the difficulty for its general acceptance, although the growing problems and trends in the economic-social field and in environmental issues, It will lead companies to rethink some concepts that are still in force, to accept others such as:
1. All industrial products must be "friendly" in relation to the environment and a building is already one more product of the industry.
2. Any savings, however small it may seem, acquires relevant importance when it assumes a massive scale in relation to the "greenhouse effect"
3. An economy based on fierce competition will not overlook any savings from savings in energy or maintenance.
4. Any "short-term" vision will be replaced by a medium or long-term vision. A building is also an economic and social project with a 50 or 80 year term.
Doing Bioenvironmental Architecture is also to locate oneself from the needs of the people, because as Agenda XXI has already expressed, there is no sustainable development as long as there is poverty, discrimination and a rhetorical application of human rights.
* By Arch. Eduardo Yarke
Director of the Solar Institute of Architecture of Bs. As.
Consultant specialist in