Mining is the main activity that generates socio-environmental conflicts related to water resources with 67 percent, followed by hydrocarbons (14 percent). In third place is energy activity with 11 percent.
Of the total conflicts studied, 90 cases correspond to formal and informal mining activities. 71 cases are linked to medium and large mining and only 12 to small mining.
The report notes that the departments that register the highest number of social conflicts also register the highest amount of mining environmental liabilities (PAM). Ancash tops the PAM record with 1251, followed by Cajamarca (1,075), Puno (1,050) and Huancavelica (858).
In the period studied, 15 civilians died and 490 injured people, 279 civilians and 211 policemen were registered. Cajamarca has the highest number of deceased persons: five.
It should also be noted that 84 percent of the conflicts over water in the 2011-2014 period are the responsibility of the national government; 9 percent to the regional government and only 7 percent to the local government.
Context of water conflict
The defense document indicates that between January 2011 and December 2014, a total of 153 social conflicts related to water resources were identified, of which 75 percent took place in rural areas.
He adds that 44 percent of the population involved has high levels of poverty. These are populations where there is a low density of the State -42 percent- as well as a low level of human development that on average is 53 percent.
All actors demand the protection of water and its remediation. They also maintain that the effects are mainly from surface water, that is, rivers, lakes and lagoons.
To access the publication (PDF) click on the link below and download the file: Peru. Social conflicts and water resources: http://www.biodiversidadla.org/Objetos_Relatados/Peru._Conflictos_sociales_y_recursos_hidricos