By Translation Dra Vizcay Gomez
Under European law, hormone-disrupting pesticides called "endocrine disruptors" or (CDEs) are not allowed to be marketed. (one)
Governments recognize the threat posed by endocrine disruptions, which are causing serious diseases such as cancer, reproductive problems, developmental problems, and birth defects.
The effects would be caused even at very low doses over a long period of exposure or from exposures at critical windows of development, such as the development of the fetus in utero. Unbelievably, the Glyphosate Task Force (GTF) website, which is run by pesticide companies, cites the German government's view that glyphosate is "not an endocrine disruptor" (2) But this is seriously misleading.
In contrast, independent peer-reviewed literature studies show that both glyphosate and commercial formulations, such as Roundup, are endocrine disruptors.
The endocrine disrupting effect of glyphosate and its commercial formulations is its toxic effect, and it is even more concerning.
This is because EDCs do not work like normal poisons, where a higher dose gives greater toxicity.
Endocrine disrupting effects are often seen at lower doses, but not at higher doses. (3) (4) Studies conducted by industry for regulatory purposes use relatively high doses and are unable to detect these effects.
Study findings include the following effects: *
Glyphosate herbicide alters hormone levels in female catfish fish and decreases egg viability.
The study concluded that the herbicide is detrimental to catfish reproduction. (5) *
Roundup disrupted the production of the steroid hormone progesterone in mouse cells. (6) *
The herbicide glyphosate was a potent EDC in rats, causing alterations in reproductive development after exposure during puberty. (7) *
In an in vitro experiment on human cells, glyphosate herbicides prevented the action of androgens, the masculinizing hormones, at levels up to 800 times lower than the levels of glyphosate residues allowed in some transgenic crops used for animal feed in the USA
DNA damage was found in human cells treated with glyphosate herbicides at these levels.
Glyphosate-based herbicides interrupted the action and formation of estrogens in feminizing hormones.
The first toxic effects were found in low doses of 5 ppm and the first endocrine disturbance in 0.5 ppm -. 800 times lower than the 400 ppm level authorized for some animal feeds (8) *
Roundup herbicide at environmentally relevant exposure levels (below 0.00023% glyphosate dilution of the commercial formulation) caused gene dysregulation in laboratory-grown human breast cancer cells in vitro.
In the 1550 genes analyzed, Roundup was able to replace and work synergistically with estrogens, which are needed for the growth of breast cancer cells.
This demonstrates the great endocrine disruptive potential of glyphosate in this hormonal system.
The authors commented: "There remains a clear pattern of the very complex events after exposure of human cells to the low levels of glyphosate, but the events surrounding the altered levels of expression of the three genes ... out of the whole battery proven, they are both potentially harmful to adults and fetal cells. "(9) *
Glyphosate only increased the proliferation of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells by estrogenic mechanisms in vitro (10) to a level allowed in drinking water in the EU (see "Potentially dangerous levels of glyphosate found in transgenic soybeans" for more information on this study). * An in vitro study of Roundup administered to rats diluted in drinking water to the equivalence of 50 ng / L glyphosate - half the level allowed in drinking water in EU 11 and 14,000 times lower than that allowed in drinking water in USA (12) - resulted in severe organ damage and a trend towards increasing incidence of mammary tumors in female animals over a 2 year period of exposure.
This last observation of tumors must be confirmed in an experiment with a larger number of rats. (13) *
Roundup is an endocrine disruptor due to its toxicity to human cells in vitro at the levels allowed in drinking water in Australia.
Endocrine disruption occurred through a mechanism of toxicity to cells, rendering them unable to produce the hormone progesterone.
The lowest level consistently found to be toxic was 720ug / L. As Australia's Drinking Water Guideline has been set at the relatively high level of 1 mg / L (higher than the US allowable levels of 700ug / L or 0.7 mg / L), the toxic levels found in the experiment are within the allowed range in Australia. (14)
Due to the activities of the powerful agrochemical lobby and its allies in government, dispute will continue over the relevance of these findings to humans until further experiments are performed on animals using low doses, presumed safe, over a long period of time. .
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