In order to check the efficiency and behavior of the materials used and the energy that can be produced by renewable sources, interns from the Center for Development and Technological Innovation (CeDITec) of the Executive Committee for Technological Development and Innovation are working on the design of a housing prototype bioclimatized.
The cabin will also use control and communications technology to record key factors for efficient energy use.
The house, located in Posadas, Misiones, will have a living room, a kitchen-dining room, a bathroom and a bedroom. It will be supplied with photovoltaic solar energy, small-scale wind energy, biodigester, solar water heater and solar cooker.
The authors of the project are the electronic engineer Martín Mathot y Rebolé (director of CeDITec) and the civil engineer Matthías Damián FISCHER (CeDITec intern), who have the collaboration of Juan Manuel Mathot Rebolé (CeDITec intern and student of the degree in Computer Science) and Fabricio Nicolás Barros (head of the CeDITec workshop).
The promoters of the idea stated that this house is designed and calculated to be built in the region, using materials that are obtained at reasonable costs and elements within the house that are best adapted to efficient use with the least possible intervention of the person who inhabits it.
Misiones has a subtropical climate with high temperatures in summer and during most of the year. According to the National Meteorological Service (SMN), Posadas has average maximum temperatures of 33.2ºC and minimum temperatures of 17.3ºC. Attentive to these factors, the constructions should consider the protection against the insolation received, in order to mitigate it in the summer and take advantage of it in the winter. But the homes and buildings that are planned in the province do not generally take this provision into account.
In most houses the heat is quenched through the use of air conditioning, which, being in environments with high requirements and low efficiency, consume a lot of energy to cool them. When analyzing this situation, the authors of the project considered that it is essential to manufacture a prototype, with a bioclimatic design. Afterwards, it should be monitored by temperature sensors and software that performs data collection, to analyze performance.
The prototype of the house will have several architectural characteristics such as, for example, being oriented to take advantage of the sun in winter times and having shade in the summer; design according to passive solar architecture criteria. In the construction, insulating materials will be used to take advantage of the energy, double entrance doors and galleries.
The house will have a solar chimney with control of opening, for ventilation and taking advantage of cool temperatures in summer and warm in winter, with the incorporation of a panel for heating the air by greenhouse effect.
It will also have a solar heater for hot water, in order to reduce the energy consumption necessary to heat the bath water; tubular skylight to reduce the lights needed during the day, oven and solar cooker. Photovoltaic panels and a wind generator will be used to generate electricity, which will feed a set of batteries for lighting, cooling and heating.
Another source of energy will be organic waste, which is why it will contain a biodigester for the use of organic matter that generates methane gas in its decomposition. A kitchen with a disposer to use organic kitchen waste for compost. In addition, the efficient use of water is foreseen, building a bathroom with use of gray water and collecting rainwater for use in irrigation and toilet flushing.
The initiative aims for the house to make minimal use of electricity, which will be provided autonomously, without having to be connected to the electricity grid. For this, it will have a low power SHEFV system (hybrid photovoltaic wind power system).
The interior lighting will be with high-efficiency LED lamps that work with 12V direct current with storage in batteries and a battery and inverter system to generate 220 V alternating (50Hz) to power a refrigerator designed to keep food.
In addition, there will be energy for a minimum extra consumption for a television, personal computer and cell phone charger.
Everything will be monitored by an electronic system that determines, in case of low energy availability, prioritize energy to the most critical areas (refrigeration and lighting), in addition to providing an alert system for this situation. It will also have a monitoring system for outdoor and indoor temperature parameters, as well as energy generated and consumed in the home. This way it will be possible to act to improve the functioning of the house.
Through this project it is intended to supply the necessary energy to a home to carry out daily tasks of food, cleaning, leisure, work, with an acceptable level of comfort and making use of the available energy captured by the home. As well as demonstrating to society, in a practical way, the existence of architectural design principles that make use of solar technologies and, through them, their aesthetic and energy benefits.