By María del Pilar Cordero César
The Western world responds through the so-called globalization, from the market, from individualism and competition, from the supremacy of man over nature, from consumerism. On the other side, there is a vision that aims to be more supportive, collaborative, sustainable, inclusive, in which concepts such as the so-called "green economies" emerge, up to the focus on sustainable human development.
The conception of the transformation of man is not included in isolation, but of the man who lives in society and develops in it to transform himself and transform it towards a more human, dignified, creative, thoughtful and happy life. A relevant contribution of Paulo Freire is on his vision in education based on the human potentialities of creativity and freedom.
His objective is to discover and apply liberating solutions through interaction and personal and social transformation, through what he calls the process of awareness, defined as the process by which the individual and a community achieve greater awareness, both of the sociocultural reality that shape his life, as well as of his ability to transform that reality (cited by Agular A., Bize B., 2011).
Thus, humans learn to be human in interaction with others, hence socialization is in itself an educational process that responds to the demands and needs of social groups (Patiño Hilda 2010).
The person as being in relationship, is called to achieve happiness in the loving encounter with others and to found areas of creative interaction that allow mutual growth and autonomy in interdependence (Patiño 2010 p 77).
Educating for as a "social fact" and not an "economic fact", thus education must be understood at the service of integral human development with a truly humanizing sense (Aguilar A., Bize B. 2011).
Sagan said (cited by Pedroza and Reyes, 2014) a social scenario where all the elements that make up a society are involved, where human beings continue to be an important part of the context, no more and no less than the rest of the species, organisms and life forms on the planet as a whole.
In this scenario and understanding like Bell (2006) that education is one of the most important institutions in society.
Patiño comments “in the field of education it is crucial to uphold a fair conception of the person, that is, a conception that avoids the simplification of unilateral views, whether pessimistic or optimistic, and that takes into account the complexity of the human condition. since in educational practice anthropological conceptions “land” and, therefore, the consequences suffer more strongly ”(2010).
Understanding ourselves in this complexity to homo sapiens, but also emotional and social education - and ecological - cannot be outside the educational process as a practice, nor within pedagogy in general, since it speaks of human development in all its capacities and potentialities for perfect - humanize and be happy. It is necessary to "educate for life", not just to get good grades.
This article tries to share the new (and old) positions that education is taking into consideration and that are not only utopian proposals that most people are looking for; They are proposals that are responding to a society that is difficult to understand and difficult to keep up with, far from the most human characteristic of all, love, solidarity and the use of freedom as the maximum exponent of the development of human potential.
They are proposals that emerge based on epistemic theoretical thoughts and experimental contributions with developing methodologies, each one from a particular perspective, but from a pedagogical approach and mainly with a vision of a “socially human project” (Pedroza 2014).
Some proposals are:
- The extraocular psychopedagogy proposed by Salvador Soriano and Mónica E. Soriano;
- playful neuropedagogy, proposed by Carlos Alberto Jiménez;
- the systemic-phenomenological pedagogy, proposed by Clara Ventura;
- Educational practice from anthropology and clinical hyprosis, proposed by Rene Pedroza and Guadalupe Villalobos;
- the EALE pedagogy for teaching foreign languages, proposed by Nancy Nava;
- the suggestive / suggestive pedagogy, proposed by Gloria Alguacil; pedagogies for coexistence: in human and gender rights, proposed by María del Rosario Guerra and Carlina Serrano et al .;
- the emancipatory pedagogy, proposed by Jorge Merio Flores;
- the “Outlines of Marxist Pedagogy in Post-Revolutionary Mexico, proposed by Jenaro Reynoso;
- slow pedagogy / snail pedagogy, proposed by Hilda Vargas;
- pedagogy 3000, proposed by Noemi Paymal; the eco-pedagogical approach that Moacir Gadotti, Cruz Prado and Francisco Gutierrez have postulated;
- GAIA education, created by a collective of educators called Gloval Ecovillage educatoprs for a sustainable Earth (GEESE);
- the pedagogy of tenderness strengthened by Arnobio Maya Betancourt;
- the Mandalas pedagogy developed by the French Marie Pré;
- the digital Noosfera pedagogy developed by José Antonio Cobeña Fernandez;
- the pedagogy of Jazz by Carolyn Graham, the ASIRI pedagogy by Ivette Carrión;
- the Ludosofia of Miguel Ángel Domínguez (I),
- The Ayllu Warisata education school that was born in Bolivia and works with indigenous -ancestral- knowledge of Avelino Siñañi and Elizondo Pérez.,
- In Mexico, an example of original Otomí pedagogy that was born in the International Indigenous University called Dänguu Mfäd., Waldorf education, a pedagogy that focuses on being.
- The Kilpatrick method, based on action; the montesorri method, based on human potential;
- the Etievan educational model, by Nathalie de Salzman (based on the ideas of Ivanovich Gurdjieff;
- The biocentric education of Rolando Toro, Chile; Education with the heart of José María Toro, from Spain;
- The Shichida method, from Mako Shichida, Japan;
- La creática, by Natalio Domínguez, Venezuela;
- the cloud school, Sugata Mitra's SOLE method in India.
Other types of pedagogies proposed in the so-called “alternative schools” or “free education” are providing a wide range of models that are inserted with a humanizing and socially humane practice from families that no longer want to send their children to closed schools (or traditional) because they are not educating and they begin a new challenge of education at home and / or in different spaces not classified as traditional classrooms, and this boom does not only come from alternative movements.
Official education, lack of respect for minors and the imposition of highly debatable criteria are increasingly being questioned.
Santiago González (free school in Spain) points out that “there is a great tendency to not have patience”, hence the different rhythms are not respected; while Eva Friera emphasizes that “error allows learning. Greater emotional health leads to greater cognitive development ”compared to a model, the institutionalized one, where there is no time, and fewer and fewer resources to attend to the difference, to respect each one's time, their interests. And from parents who are often obsessed with achieving excellent grades, differentiating between marian and important subjects and not understanding teaching as something experiential, comprehensive, emotional. For wanting to have engineers of only three years.
More and more parents question the official education system.
The concept of "alternative education" includes the student not only as a recipient of knowledge of educational subjects, but must have spaces for interaction to develop virtues such as solidarity, the search for truth, freedom and creativity (Palacios C. Cardboard house, Peru). They are a proposal that from Praxis they are moving to theoretical and epistemological construction and from this to praxis, because as Morin (2006) says “schemes to rethink education: from practice to theory, from theory to practice; "The method generated by the theory, regenerates it."
Here are some examples (II):
1.- Waldorf teachers and indigenous scholars, who introduce new teaching methods such as hummingbird pedagogy (of Kággabba origin), basket pedagogy (of Witoto origin, Colombian Amazon) and the practice of Mambeo (or Circle of the Word) through the "Foundation with hands on the ground", in Colombia in the municipality of Ráquira, Boyacá. This is how a network of families who educate their children at home, in collaboration with the community, began to form.
2.- The Waldkindergartens in Germany, also called Forest Schools, are schools where girls and boys between the ages of three and six spend every day in the open air, running, rolling around, climbing trees, playing with branches and leaves, getting into the mud up to the knees, and discovering all the manifestations of life no matter how tiny. They have been in operation since 1996 and today there are more than 700 throughout Germany.
3.- Democratic Education, founded by José Pacheco, in the 70's as the school project da ponte, begins by addressing autonomy as an inseparable concept of solidarity.
4.- Summerhill and schools with brains that build on Alexander Neill and his daughter Zoe's theory of assisted education released.
5.- The Casa de Cartón de Carlos Palacios in Peru, said that a drastic change is also necessary in the way of providing education to schoolchildren.
In that sense, he commented on the experience lived in this study center where coexistence methods are applied that involve the teacher, the schoolchild and their family as protagonists of the educational training.
This educational model, which is now 30 years old and which has been proposed in several schools as a complement to the curriculum established by the State, proposes prioritizing the time that the student spends in the classrooms to share knowledge with cultural activities such as art or music. sport and other typical of life in society that in turn serve as a stimulus for the minor to feel curiosity and the desire to learn. For this, the students are offered painting workshops, plastic art, sports practices and activities such as organic garden and garbage recycling, which contribute to developing a sense of solidarity with others and with the environment in which it operates.
6.- Free schools in Spain, such as the Tximeleta school, located in a Navarrese hamlet in the Etxarri valley, the Gijon house that houses Andolina.
These are usually family cooperatives or family associations that, little attracted by the official system and the treatment given to children, decide to get involved in the education of their children and found these private, mixed, secular and active pedagogy schools, which they mostly host Infant and Primary Education. Some of them, as is the case of Andolina, arise in part from breeding groups, like La Quinta’l Texu, which will open its doors in Villaperi (Oviedo) this September (2013). The Free Schools, also called democratic or Active Pedagogy. They are alternative schools compared to the conventional ones under the umbrella of the state “officiality”, in the hands of the Autonomies.
7.- Nelly Pearson, promoter of an alternative pedagogical experience. Due to its influence from La Plata, 30 schools were created in the country. Other rating scales. An apprenticeship without degrees, without written tests or newsletters.
Pedagogical Center of La Plata. “We were never against the public educational system. We just wanted to apply the innovative ideas that the Cossetini sisters had upheld ”. The key to this teaching is to give children artistic sensitivity and freedom to choose, establishing values such as respect and tolerance. Schools do not have grades, do not take written tests, and there are no report cards.
This is an invitation to explore that in education "another world is possible", its authors and proposals.