The Costa Rican state Institute of Electricity (ICE) announced the news, specifically noting that they have not had to resort to energy generated by fossil fuels in all of 2015. Costa Rica has a small population of just 4.8 million inhabitants , abundant rains to feed its four hydroelectric plants and a multitude of volcanoes for geothermal facilities.
Diversification is also important. While hydroelectric plants produced 80% of the energy in Costa Rica in 2014, there is no lack of detractors of this form of electricity production, which affects the ecosystems where they are installed.
About 10% of the energy was generated by geothermal plants in 2014, and the government approved a $ 958 million geothermal project for this year. Financed largely with loans from European and Japanese banks, the project consists of three facilities that will provide an additional 150 MW of green energy.
All this means that Costa Rica will be completely carbon neutral by 2021, and thus not touch the oil deposits that are found along its coast. It is an extraordinary effort for a small nation, and it has been largely possible because Costa Rica has not had an army since 1948, which frees up large resources for financing renewable energy infrastructure.
Other small countries such as Sweden, Bulgaria or Estonia have reached their renewable energy targets set for 2020. Denmark obtains 40% of its energy demand from wind energy and plans to get rid of fossil fuels by 2050.