Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai and Indian activist Kailash Satyarthi have been awarded the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize this Friday for their fight in favor of early childhood education, as announced by the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The prize, valued at $ 1.1 million, will be presented in Oslo on December 10, the anniversary of the death of the inventor of dynamite Alfred Nobel, who founded the awards in 1895.
In the world's poorest countries, 60% of the population is under 25 years of age, the jury recalled to affirm that respect for the rights of children and young people is "a prerequisite for a global development in peace."
In the case of Kailash Satyarthi, the Committee highlighted his "great personal courage" which, "in the tradition of Gandhi", has led him to lead protests and demonstrations, all peaceful, to denounce child exploitation. "It has also contributed to the development of important international conventions on the rights of children," he stressed when arguing for the award of the Nobel Peace Prize.
In the case of Malala Yousafzay, who was already one of the favorites to win the award last year, the Committee stressed that "despite her youth, she has already fought for several years for the right of girls to education and He has shown by example that children and young people can also contribute to improving their own situation. " "She did it in the most dangerous circumstances. Through her heroic struggle she has become a leading spokesperson for girls' right to education," added the jury.
By awarding a Hindu and a Muslim, an Indian and a Pakistani, the Committee also wanted to bet on a "joint fight in favor of education and against extremism." He also recalled the work of all the people and organizations that work against child exploitation.
According to their figures, it is estimated that there are around 168 million working children in the world, 78 million less than in 2000.
Kailash Satyarthi, born in 1954 in Vidisha, India, where he continues to reside, is president of the non-governmental organization Global March Against Child Labor. In 1998 he led a civil mobilization against child exploitation that brought together nearly 7.2 million people and led to the birth of the NGO.
Malala Yousafzay, born in 1997 in Mingora, Pakistan, was seriously injured two years ago when her school bus was attacked. She was transferred to the UK in fear for her safety and was subjected to various interventions. In the last two years, Malala has become an icon in the fight for women's rights to receive an education and was chosen in 2013 by Time magazine as one of the most influential personalities in the world.
The Pope or Snowden were among the favorites
Pope Francis, Congolese doctor Denis Mukwege, Pakistani Malala Yousafzai and former CIA analyst Edward Snowden headed the pre-Nobel pools. Francisco, who would be the first pope to receive this award, opened the betting houses lists, but not with the clarity with which Malala did a year ago.
Snowden, who won the so-called "Alternative Nobel" this year, had the endorsement of prestigious Norwegian academics, but his choice was unlikely because the United States claims him after having revealed a worldwide espionage plot promoted by government agencies in Washington.
Also well placed in the forecasts were the UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon; former German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, American activist Gene Sharp, Chinese scientist Yuan Longping, Australian and Ethiopian doctor Catherine Hamlin, and Frank Mugisha, a Ugandan gay rights activist. The independent newspaper "Nóvaya Gazeta" topped the list of Russian candidates, which includes several activists and dissidents.
The Chechen lawyer Lidia Yusúpova, the Chinese Uighur Rebiya Kadeer, the Bahrain Center for Human Rights or the Mexican bishop José Raúl Vera López have in their favor having obtained the human rights prize from the Norwegian Rafto Foundation, awarded this year to the organization Russian Agora.
Last year the Nobel Peace Prize went to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), distinguished for its efforts to eliminate these arsenals.
In this edition there has been a record number of candidates, 278, but the list of proposals sent by university professors of Law or Political Science, parliamentarians or former laureates from around the world will not be made public for another 50 years.
The round of announcements of winners of the Nobel Prizes 2014 opened on Monday with the one for Medicine or Physiology, followed, in this order, by those for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature.